Were the Levites Hyksos? Both the Levites and the Hyksos garner their fair share of attention in their respective disciplines, biblical scholarship for the former and Egyptology for the latter, but never the twain shall met. The association with the Hyksos, the West Semitic warriors from across the river with a year tradition of being in Egypt at the time of Ramses II, with the Exodus is millennia old. As recounted by 1 st century CE Jewish historian Josephus, the Egyptians already had a centuries-old tradition linking the Hyksos to the Exodus. The idea of their being some relationship between at least some Hyksos and the Israelites is more acceptable in Egyptology than in biblical studies. It would mean real people in the real world in a real political context of some kind left Egypt and settled in Canaan, ideas that are unacceptable to biblical scholars.

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Aston, Chapter II. Gitin ed. Mainly jugs and juglets with incised decoration which developed a series of regional styles that may help to identify Mainly jugs and juglets with incised decoration which developed a series of regional styles that may help to identify polities in this region. Tell el-Yahudiya Ware from the northern Levant is exported before the Hyksos Period to Egypt where it shows a local development.

This kind of pottery is found mainly in tombs near the head of the deceased. Bigger examples also occur in ritual and rarely in domestic contexts.

They may have contained aromatic oils but so far the exact essence has escaped gas-chromatographic examinations.

This article is an abstract of the substantial publication: D. Stager, Ross Voss and Karin Kopetzky. Publication Date: Save to Library. Prepublication: M. We will be focussing on the elite in Avaris, the decision makers, who may have come from a region different to that of the population of the Hyksos capital.

Architectural parallels cluster in the northern Levant and, in a more sophisticated mapping, in northernmost Syria and in northern Mesopotamia. Such evidence evokes thoughts about how such building concepts could have been transmitted to Egypt during the late Middle Kingdom and the Hyksos period. We have to ask, therefore, who the decision-makers were, and how and why they chose such architectural archetypes that were tied, of course, to religion and cult. The first foreign dynasty which ruled Egypt between c.

They rendered They rendered the tradition about these rulers in an absolutely biased and distorted way. It is the methods of modern archaeology, which enable to elucidate aspects and parts of history, prehistory and the aftermath of the Hyksos rule in a new light.

We want to know from where and when the elite and the people behind the Hyksos rule came from, how they arrived in Egypt and how they settled there and were able to build up their power. We also want to know what the backbone of their economy had been and how they interacted with the rest of Egypt and with whom they entertained their commercial and political contacts. Finally, the question arises, why the Hyksos rule failed in Egypt. Within this workshop you will hear some of the answers to these questions.

We are able to offer evidence that the Western Asiatic population, on which the Hyksos rule rested, came from a different region in the Levant - at least parts of their elite.

Temple architecture and burial customs show that the religious inspirations and the concepts of afterlife in the eastern Nile Delta originated from northernmost Syria and northern Mesopotamia. It is the site on which excavations between under the supervision of the speaker produced with more than 80 field- and working-up-campaigns an enormous quantity of evidence on settlement, tombs, palaces, temples and a hoard of material culture which was partly published in 24 volumes but would still need the same amount of publications in the future if circumstances would allow it.

This ERC project was able to draw from these excavations but also produced conclusions, which place these archaeological results with the help of international colleagues into a much wider perspective. Our studies in relationship with the Hyksos lead us not only to the Levant but also to the wider cultural background of Mesopotamia and also to Asia minor, and concerning trade also to Cyprus and the Aegean.

It seems clear now that the flourishing trading network built up by a Western Asiatic community before the Hyksos Period broke down during their reign, as they were cut off from the resources of Upper Egypt and Nubia and could not offer a barter for their trade with the Levant.

Pienkowska, D. Zych eds. This article treats architecture and archaeological contexts as signs that help us reach the meaning and function of building assemblages. It therefore falls into the framework of the semiotics of space and architecture of the abundant It therefore falls into the framework of the semiotics of space and architecture of the abundant literature on the subject, see among others, Eco ; Hammad ; Lukken The study concentrates on the Obelisk Temple in Byblos and its predecessors, searching for the connection between these sacred buildings from the Early and Middle Bronze Ages.

A hieroglyphic inscription on one of the obelisks of the so-called Obelisk Temple in Byblos may help to conclude that the numerous upright stones in the sacred precinct were in accord with the widespread custom of erecting standing stones in the Levant and Asia Minor. They are thought to have been memorial stones massebot, betyls for specific individuals, set up all around this temple.

The architectural history of the predecessors of the Obelisk Temple seems to confirm this. The central of the tripartite shrines of the Temple en L of the Early Bronze Age forms an east—west axis opening toward the east. This idea seems to have been taken over by the Byblites.

View on doi. Its objective was especially to present and increase our knowledge about Ancient Near Eastern palaces in comparison to those in Egypt. It becomes clear that while concepts of axial plans and symmetry in Egyptian palaces reflect the pharaonic mind, Ancient Near Eastern architects were more flexible in planning. Besides the canonical principles exhibited by the core of palaces as witnessed in Mesopotamia in the times of the great empires, the modular construction process, as particularly found in Syria, allowed the adaptation of architecture to the needs of changing palatial households.

The size and type of architecture demonstrate the kind of representation of the ruler towards his world. Some features were adopted from temples in order to stage the appearance of the ruler like a divine epiphany. The size of the throne room and the number of columns could be taken as a yardstick for the importance of a ruler.

The number of columns of porticos and halls within different units of a palace shows us a hierarchy in the use of spaces within the building complex, while the capacity of storerooms gives us an impression about the economic power that stands behind it. Together, these two volumes will contribute to a better understanding of the architectural canon and diversity of palaces in Ancient Egypt and the difference in concept to their Ancient Near Eastern counterparts, but highlight as well mutual influences between the two worlds.

The result The result is a compilation of information — archaeological and textual — one can resort to in order to develop strategies to understand architectural and functional variations and recognise schemes of building canons for palaces in Ancient Egypt. In addition, the understanding of Ancient Egyptian palaces is amplified with specialised studies regarding architectural and administrative terminology. The combined evidence shows that there was indeed a variability in function, in architecture and in the physical situation of palaces in Ancient Egypt.

Besides a common space program such as the succession of courtyard, portico, vestibule, throne room and the intimate part of the palace, one may observe a variability of the number of aisles or of columns present as well as in the thickness of walls. This fact points to hierarchical rules concerning the importance of the building. As the architecture is often preserved only in its foundations, it is important to learn what kind of walls were load-bearing, what the size of division walls is and which kind of walls once carried columns.

All these first observations have to undergo an evaluation process before one can think of discovering a building canon. A general introducing section is followed by contributions covering Ancient Egyptian palaces from Predynastic times until the New Kingdom.

Together, these two volumes will contribute to a better understanding of the architectural canon and diversity of palaces in Ancient Egypt and the difference in concept to their Ancient Oriental counterparts. This is a pre-publication of an in-depth review article of a new study of Anna-Latifa Mourad on the Hyksos. The review has appeared in the meantime. Abstract: Originating from a thesis at the Macquarie University in Sydney, Anna-Latifa Mourad presents the most thorough survey of sites of the hybrid Middle Bronze Age Culture in Egypt and reviews pertinent places in the Levant alike in order to assess the phenomenon of the domination of Egypt by Western Asiatic rulers, known as the Hyksos.

On top of it she also reviews all relevant inscriptions, stelae and tomb representations of Asiatic people living in Egypt during the time of the Middle Kingdom. She assembles from all this scattered evidence a picture of the foreigners who dominated Egypt in the 17th and 16th century BC. According to her analysis these settlers came from the northern Levant and contributed substantially to the culture and policy of the New Kingdom.

It is one of the best books on the Hyksos ever written. The research of the author will have an impact on the above described project on the Enigmatic Dynasty of the Hyksos.

Obituary for the late Lawrence E. Manfred Bietak, Review: "J. Hoffmeier et al. Review of the first volume of excavations directed by James Hoffmeier at the site of Tell Borg in northern Sinai with fortresses of the 18th and 19th Dynasties.

Charlotte L. Pearson et al. This important paper produced by the Tree-Ring Research Lab of the University of Arizona is the result of a new radiocarbon calibration, based on annual tree-ring dating. As one of the outcomes it seems that the Minoan eruption of the As one of the outcomes it seems that the Minoan eruption of the Thera volcano happened not in the late 17th but in the 16th century BC between , possibly even as late as The results have been confirmed by other labs and the extension of the new calibration backwards in time proceeds now in collaboration with the ETH Zurich.

Its results will be already considered in the new IntCalcurve. Archaeological data anchored within a historical chronology framework should better be used as a control mechanism. For prehistoric re-search the radiocarbon based chronology is an indispensable tool.

The presented results give hope that 14C research will produce by and by a more accurate chronology. This paper is an important milestone for this objective. Abstract: The mid-second millennium BCE eruption of Thera Santorini offers a critically important marker horizon to synchronize archaeological chronologies of the Aegean, Egypt, and the Near East and to anchor paleo- environmental records from ice cores, speleothems, and lake sediments.

Precise and accurate dating for the event has been the subject of many decades of research. Using calendar-dated tree rings, we created an annual resolution radiocarbon time series — BCE to validate, improve, or more clearly define the limitations for radiocarbon calibration of materials from key eruption contexts.

Results show an offset from the interna- tional radiocarbon calibration curve, which indicates a shift in the calibrated age range for Thera toward the 16th century BCE. This finding sheds new light on the long-running debate focused on a discrepancy between radiocarbon late 17th—early 16th century BCE and archaeological mid 16th—early 15th century BCE dating evidence for Thera.

This is the result of interviews with researchers and international colleagues of the team of the ERC Advanced Grant "The Hyksos Enigma" with the objective to show the current research work on the grant project. Progress has been made to Progress has been made to learn more about the origin of the Hyksos elite and the Western Asiatic people who carried their rule over Egypt: From where and how they came into the eastern Nile Delta, in which way they gained power and executed their rule, what were the reasons of their downfall and what impact they had on the Egyptian culture of the New Kingdom.


manfred bietak

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Professor Manfred Bietak

Manfred Bietak born in Vienna , October 6, is an Austrian archaeologist. Bietak is best known as the director of the Austrian excavations at two sites in the Nile delta : [2] [3] Tell El-Dab'a , which was identified as the location of Avaris , [4] the capital of the Hyksos period; and Piramesse , which was the capital of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. A palace precinct of those kings, furnished with Minoan frescoes was one of the most important discoveries. Since he conducts excavations at the Middle Kingdom Palace at Bubastis. Bietak studied archeology at University of Vienna, obtaining his Dr. In , he took part in the archaeological rescue expedition of UNESCO at Sayala in Nubia , and he also supervised excavations there; in he was the director of the expedition. In , he founded the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo ; he has been the director of the institute until

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