It was ruled by the first four successive caliphs successors of Muhammad after his death in CE AH This term is not widely used in Shia Islam as Shia Muslims do not consider the rule of the first three caliphs as legitimate. The Rashidun Caliphate is characterized by a twenty-five year period of rapid military expansion , followed by a five-year period of internal strife. The Rashidun Army at its peak numbered more than , men.
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In their order of succession to Muhammad, these caliphs are: Abu Bakr r. According to the Sunni view of Islam's earliest history, the prophet Muhammad did not designate anyone to succeed him.
Muhammad having been the last of God's prophets, the question, in any case, was of succession to the polity he had founded in Medina, not to his prophetical office. It was therefore left to the community to decide on his succession, and after some discussion and uncertainty a number of the Prophet's Companions elected Abu Bakr , a leading member of the community and Muhammad's father-in-law, as the first caliph. Before his death two years later c.
No other period in the history of Islam has been the subject of greater debate than the events of the Fitna. For the Sunnis, the Companions are second only to the Prophet as sources of religious guidance, and yet during the civil war they were ranged on opposite sides and bitterly fought each other.
Indeed, it is to the events of the First Civil War that the origins of the major religio-political schisms in Islam are datable. A distinctive doctrine of those who, in the ninth century, emerged as the Sunnis was that all four of the Prophet's immediate successors were equally righteous, and that the historical sequence of their succession was also the order of their religious ranking.
Agreement on this position did not come about easily. By the time of the hadith scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal d. It was also in the late eighth and early ninth centuries that a tradition of the Prophet, according to which the "caliphate" would last only thirty years after his death—that is, only for the duration of the reigns of his first four successors—became widely current.
Though the Umayyads and the Abbasids claimed, of course, to be caliphs and were recognized as such by the Sunni religious scholars, a position such as that enshrined in the "thirty years" hadith signaled that the age of the Rashidun was to be set apart from all subsequent eras.
For the Sunnis, that age has continued to be seen as a time, indeed the only time, when Islamic ideals were truly implemented.
As such, invocations of the Rashidun have continued to be part of the religio-political discourse in the Sunni Islamic world to the present. Ess, Josef van. Hinds, Martin.
Studies in Early Islamic History. Edited by Jere Bacharach, et al. Princeton, N. Madelung, Wilferd. Cambridge, U. Tabari, al-. The History of al-Tabari. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. May 23, Retrieved May 23, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
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Apar… Dar Al-islam , The term dar al-islam, which literally means "the house or abode of Islam," came to signify Islamic territory in juridical discussions. About this article Rashidun Updated About encyclopedia. You Might Also Like Shi? Islam: Islam in Southeast Asia. Political Thought. Islam: Shii. Islam, Shia And Sunni. Politics and Religion: Politics and Islam. Islamic Monarchy. Rashid, Uday —. Rashid, Saleha Abdul —. Rashid, Harun Al- C. Rashid, Harun al-. Rashid, El. Rashid, Ahmed —.
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The caliphate of Hasan ibn Ali is sometimes also considered to be Rashidun as well but since it was merely a six month period it is not mentioned categorically. The Rashidun were either elected by a council see the election of Uthman and Islamic democracy or chosen based on the wishes of their predecessor. He prevented the recently converted Muslims from dispersing, kept the community united, and consolidated Islamic grip on the region by containing the Ridda , while extending the Dar Al Islam all the way to the Red Sea. Dhu al-Hijjah 26, 23 Hijri  was a leading companion and adviser to Muhammad. His daughter Hafsa bint Umar was married to Muhammad; thus he became Muhammad's father-in-law. He became the second Muslim caliph after Muhammad's death and ruled for 10 years. Under Umar the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate ruling the whole Sassanid Persian Empire and more than two thirds of the Eastern Roman Empire.
In their order of succession to Muhammad, these caliphs are: Abu Bakr r. According to the Sunni view of Islam's earliest history, the prophet Muhammad did not designate anyone to succeed him. Muhammad having been the last of God's prophets, the question, in any case, was of succession to the polity he had founded in Medina, not to his prophetical office. It was therefore left to the community to decide on his succession, and after some discussion and uncertainty a number of the Prophet's Companions elected Abu Bakr , a leading member of the community and Muhammad's father-in-law, as the first caliph. Before his death two years later c. No other period in the history of Islam has been the subject of greater debate than the events of the Fitna.
As successor to the Prophet, the Caliph was the head of the Muslim community and his primary responsibility was to continue in the path of the Prophet SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam. He was a ruler over Muslims but not their sovereign since sovereignty belongs to Allah alone. He was to be obeyed as long as he obeyed Allah. He was responsible for creating and maintaining conditions under which it would be easy for Muslims to live according to Islamic principles, and to see that justice was done to all. Abu Bakr RadhiAllahu Anhu , at the time he accepted the caliphate, stated his position thus:.