Embroidery is an artwork done on textile material or the fabric for the show rich culture and royal tradition of people of different geographical position. Embroidery basically done by special sewing workers do stitching using a needle on fabric like thread, yarn, etc. In ancient times there were different techniques of embroidery work. Some of which is still used in modern days are chain stitch, blanket stitch, running stitch, satin stitch, cross stitch.
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Embroidery in India includes dozens of embroidery styles that vary by region and clothing styles. Designs in Indian embroidery are formed on the basis of the texture and the design of the fabric and the stitch. The dot and the alternate dot, the circle, the square, the triangle, and permutations and combinations of these constitute the design. Aari work involves a hook, plied from the top but fed by silk thread from below with the material spread out on a frame. This movement creates loops, and repeats of these lead to a line of chain stitches.
The other hand feeds the thread from the underside, and the hook brings it up, making a chainstitch, but it is much quicker than chainstitch done in the usual way: looks like machine-made and can also be embellished with sequins and beads - which are kept on the right side, and the needle goes inside their holes before plunging below, thus securing them to the fabric.
Aari embroidery is practiced in various regions such as in Kashmir  and Kutch Gujarat. Practiced by the Lambada  gypsy tribes of Andhra Pradesh , Banjara embroidery is a mix of applique with mirrors and beadwork. Bright red, yellow, black and white coloured cloth is laid in bands and joined with a white criss-cross stitch. The Banjaras of Madhya Pradesh who are found in the districts of Malwa and Nimar have their own style of embroidery where designs are created according to the weave of the cloth, and the textured effect is achieved by varying colours and stitches of the geometric patterns and designs.
Motifs are generally highlighted by cross-stitch. The Banni or Heer Bharat embroidery originates in Gujarat , and is practiced mainly by the Lohana community.
Bagh and phulkari embroidery of the Punjab region has influenced Heer Bharat embroidery in its use of geometrical motifs and stitchery. This embroidery flourished in the princely hill states of Kangra ,  Chamba , Basholi, and other neighbouring provinces. Chamba region has highly skilled craftsmen. The present form of chikan meaning elegant patterns on fabric work is associated with the city of Lucknow , in Uttar Pradesh.
Chikan embroidery on silk is Lucknow's own innovation. The other chikan styles are that of Calcutta and Dacca. However, characteristic forms of stitch were developed in Lucknow : phanda and murri. Chikan embroidery is believed to have been introduced by Nur Jahan,  the wife of Jahangir.
Chikan embroidery involves the use of white thread on white muslin tanzeb , fine cotton mulmul , or voile, fine almost sheer fabrics which showcases shadow work embroidery the best.
Other colours can also be used. The artisans usually create individual motifs or butis of animals and flowers rose, lotus, jasmine, creepers. The designs are first printed onto the fabric not with chaulk, but with a mixture of glue and indigo. At least 40 different stitches are documented, of which about 30 are still practiced today and include flat, raised and embossed stitches, and the open trellis-like jaali work.
Some of the stitches that are used in Chikankari work include: taipchi, pechni, pashni, bakhia ulta bakhia and sidhi bakhia , gitti, jangira, murri, phanda, jaalis etc. In English: chain stitch, buttonhole stitch, French knots and running stitch, shadow work. Another is the khatao also called khatava or katava.
Small pieces of zari ribbon are applied onto the fabric with the edges sewn down to create elaborate patterns. Lengths of wider golden ribbons are stitched on the edges of the fabric to create an effect of gold zari work. Khandela in Shekhawati is famous for its manufacture. The Muslim community uses Kinari or edging, a fringed border decoration.
Gota-kinari practiced mainly in Jaipur , utilising fine shapes of bird, animals, human figures which are cut and sewn on to the material.
Naksha is embroidery on many layers of cloth like quilting , with running stitch. Traditionally, worn out clothes and saris were piled together and stitched into quilts. Rural Bengali women still do this with cotton saris, the embroidery thread being taken from the sari border. It started as a method of making quilts, but the same type of embroidery can also be found on saris, salwar suits, stoles, napkins, etc.
Themes include human beings, animals, flowers, geometric designs and mythological figures. It is a raised zari metallic thread embroidery created by sewing flat stitches on cotton padding. Kasuti is done with single thread and involves counting of each thread on the cloth. The patterns are stitched without knots, so that both sides of the cloth look alike. Stitches like Gavanti, Murgi, Negi and Menthi form intricate patterns like gopura, chariot, palanquin, lamps and conch shells, as well as peacocks and elephants, in fixed designs and patterns.
Kathi embroidery was introduced by 'Kathi' the cattle breeders, who were wanderers. The best known of the Kutch Gujarat embroidery techniques is Aribharat, named after the hooked needle which forms the chainstitch. It is also known as Mochibharat, as it used to be done by mochis cobblers. A variation of Kutch work, this geometric embroidery starts with a foundation framework of herringbone stitch   or Cretan stitch, and then this framework is completely filled with interlacing.
It is said that this technique originated in far away land of Armenia and found its way to Gujarat by travelling Nomads. Sindhi stitch or Maltese cross stitch is also similar but the innovation of the Kutchi women have taken it beyond the traditional designs Kutch work .
Kashmiri embroidery also Kashida is used for phirans woollen kurtas and namdahs woollen rugs as well as stoles. It draws inspiration from nature. Birds, blossoms and flowers, creepers, chinar leaves, ghobi , mangoes, lotus, and trees are the most common themes.
The entire pattern is made with one or two embroidery stitches, and mainly chain stitch on a base of silk, wool and cotton: the colour is usually white, off-white or cream but nowadays one can find stoles and salwar-kameez sets in many other colours such as brown, deep blue, sky blue, maroon and rani pink.
Kashida is primarily done on canvas with crystal threads, but Kashida also employs pashmina and leather threads. Apart from clothes, it's found on home furnishings like bed spreads, sofa and floor cushions, and pillow covers.
The base cloth, whether wool or cotton , is generally white or cream or a similar shade. Pastel colors are also often used. The craftsmen use shades that blend with the background. Thread colors are inspired by local flowers. Only one or two stitches are employed on one fabric.
Kashmiri embroidery is known for the skilled execution of a single stitch, which is often called the Kashmiri stitch and which may comprise the chain stitch, the satin stitch, the slanted darn stitch, the stem stitch, and the herringbone stitch. Sometimes, the doori knot stitches are used but not more than one or two at a time.
The stitches include sozni satin , zalakdozi chain and vata chikan button hole. The samovar pattern is then filled up with intricate flowers and leaves and twigs; Kashir-jaal which implies fine network of embroidery, particularly on the neckline and sleeves of a dress material.
Variation of this form is neem-jaal, where again the work is less dense. Small rectangular pieces of metal are squeezed shut around some threads of the fabric. Mukesh work known also as badla or fardi , includes women making shiny stitches amid chikan embroidery using a needle and long, thin strips of metal.
Flower embroidery of Uttar Pradesh ,  especially in Aligarh. Its distinctive property is that the base is a dull hand-spun or khadi cloth, with bright coloured threads that cover it completely, leaving no gaps. It uses a darn stitch done from the wrong side of the fabric using darning needles, one thread at a time, leaving a long stitch below to form the basic pattern. Bagh is an offshoot of phulkari and almost always follows a geometric pattern, with green as its basic colour.
The emroidery styles of the Punjab region include kalabatun embroidery  using thin wires. Kalabatan surkh involves using gold wires on orange coloured and red silk. Kalabatan safed involves using silver wires on white material.
There are two kinds of gold embroidery, one of a solid and rich kind called kar-chob and the other called tila-kar or kar-chikan utilising gold thread. The former is used for carpets and saddle cloths whereas the latter is used for dresses. The Punjab region also uses mukesh embroidery: mukesh bati-hui, twisted tinsel, mukesh gokru, flattened gold wire for embroidery of a heavy kind, and waved mukesh, made by crimping mukesh batihui with iron tongs.
Colourful embroidered cloth-hangings made in Nathdwara, Rajasthan. The central themes focus on Lord Krishna. It is called Chandua based on patchwork: brightly coloured and patterned fabric pieces are sewn together on a plain background mostly velvet along with Mirror and lace work. Designs include Hindu gods, human forms, animals, flowers and vehicles.
Originally chandua work was done to built the chariots for Puri Rath Yatra and was also used for parasols, canopies and pillows for the Rath Yatra. This embroidery style is made by the Rabari  or Rewari community of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
This very colourful embroidery style, using stark contrast was traditionally used only for garments, but now it can be found on bags, accessories, home furnishings, etc.
Mirrors of all shapes and sizes are incorporated in the embroidery, as a result of the belief that mirrors protect from evil spirits. Designs include not only flowers and fruit and animals such as parrots and elephants, but also temples, women carrying pots, and the ubiquitus mango shape.
A combination of weaving and embroidery and was once a high status symbol. This ornamentation method originated in Persia during 13th century and involves little pieces of mirror in various sizes which are encased in the decoration of the fabric first by interlacing threads and then with buttonhole stitch.
Originally, pieces of mica were used as the mirrors, but later, people started using thin blown-glass pieces, hence the name, which in Hindi means "little glass". It's usually found in combination with other types of stitches like cross stitch, buttonhole stitch and satin stitch, nowadays not only by hand but also by machine. Mirrorwork is very popular for cushion covers and bedcovers, purses and decorative hangings as well as in decorative borders in women's salwar-kameez and sari.
Thousands of women from kutch Gujarat and sikar, churu Rajasthan are engaged in doing hand embroidery work like tie, mirror work, beads on fabric.
The Toda embroidery has its origins in Tamil Nadu. The Nilgiri Hills, inhabited by the Todu community have their own style called pugur, means flower. This embroidery, like Kantha, is practiced by women.
The embroidery adorns the shawls. The shawl, called poothkuli, has red and black bands between which the embroidery is done. As Todas worship the buffaloes, buffalo becomes an important motif in the Toda embroidery among mettvi kaanpugur, Izhadvinpuguti and others. Stylized sun, moon, stars and the eye of the peacock feathers are used in Toda embroidery.
Kashida -Kashmiri Embroidery
Embroidery of India
Known to be one of the most ancient and traditional type of intrinsic art, Kashida Embroidery, also spelled as Kasida defines its cultural essence through the medium of bead and threadwork, which has gained maximum popularity, fame and recognition in the ethnic land of Jammu and Kashmir. The purest essence and forms of nature like birds, leaves, trees and many such natural motifs are replicated in this embroidery with multi colored threads and beads woven into the fabrics like shawls and saris. The land of Kashmir etched its beautiful essence in the form of Kashida embroidery into the fashion world way back in the Mughal period which was patronized by the emperors and the royals of that era. However if we go further up along the paths of historical archives of fashion, it can be found that this embroidery was also creatively initiated by the residents of Srinagar. Intrinsic needlework and quality was webbed into the finest maze of creativity and innovation using a wide spread of colors and patterns which intertwined the mood and spirits of the craftsmen with the essence of the pure nature, and that too through the traditional form of embroidery which involved the role of one or two styles of embroidery stitching. Single stitch style is considered to be the signature style of Kashida Embroidery. Besides there are many other stitches like satin stitch, herringbone, stem stitch, chain stitch, knot stitch and many more which are also creatively implemented.
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