Inscriptions at Aihole, praising the poet's abilities, clearly date his works to before , but more specific historical information is lacking. Although the king marries her in secret, he is cursed to forget about the union until the ring he had given her is found in the belly of a fish. His rapt imagery, aesthetic sensitivity, and dazzling landscapes, infused with the presence of Shiva and the Goddess, reveal the divine presence in all things. Mumabai: Nirnaya Sagar Press,
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Inscriptions at Aihole, praising the poet's abilities, clearly date his works to before , but more specific historical information is lacking. Although the king marries her in secret, he is cursed to forget about the union until the ring he had given her is found in the belly of a fish.
His rapt imagery, aesthetic sensitivity, and dazzling landscapes, infused with the presence of Shiva and the Goddess, reveal the divine presence in all things. Mumabai: Nirnaya Sagar Press, Subramania Iyer.
New Delhi : Shitya Akademi, Reprint, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, With the "Locana" of Abhinavagupta. Translated by Daniel H. Ingalls, Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, and M. Cambridge, Mass. Baumer, Rachel van M. Brandon, eds. Sanskrit Drama in Performance. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Dimock, Edward Cameron, et al. The Literatures of India: An Introduction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Miller, Barbara Stoler, et al. New York : Columbia University Press, Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.
May 23, Retrieved May 23, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Kalidasa active late 4th-early 5th century was classical India's master poet and dramatist. He demonstrated the expressive and suggestive heights of which the Sanskrit language is capable and revealed the very essence of an entire civilization.
Nothing is known with certainty about the life of Kalidasa. Clearly later than the great Buddhist poet Asvaghosha 1st century , Kalidasa was celebrated as a major literary figure in the first half of the 7th century the Aihole inscription, The scholarly consensus outside India is that Kalidasa flourished in the time of Chandragupta II reigned A traditional Indian view would have it that he adorned Vikramaditya's court in the 1st century B.
Although he was especially fond of the Gupta capital city, Ujjain about 30 miles north of Indore in west-central India , there is no proof that he was born there. Kalidasa was a devotee of Siva, but there is no trace of sectarian narrowness in his writings.
Just as it is impossible to write Kalidasa's biography, it is impossible to establish the order in which his works were composed or to show development therein. Six major works are important.
The epic poem Kumarasambhava Birth of Kumara; Kumara, the Prince, was the war-god son of Siva boldly recounts the divine romance that led to the birth of Siva's son.
Another epic poem, the Raghuvamsa, praises the origins and life of Rama. The cantos devoted to Rama show Kalidasa's brilliant condensation and modulation of the Valmiki Ramayana. A comparison of the two poets is inevitable, and Kalidasa does not suffer. His Rama exhibits a depth of near-tragic heroism unparalleled in Sanskrit literature.
The lyric "elegy" Meghaduta Cloud Messenger is a short but striking work displaying another dimension of Kalidasa's genius. This masterpiece tells of an exiled demidivinity who, in his anguish for the well-being of his bride, commissions a monsoon thunderhead to carry news of his safety to her in the north.
This work is the fount of an enormously productive genre in Sanskrit and related Indic literatures. The Meghaduta alone drew 45 commentaries, more than any other Sanskrit composition. As love stories, Kalidasa's three dramas are not unusual, but the author's control of dialogue, situation, and detail is masterly. Though the Malavikagnimitrais assumed to be the earliest of Kalidasa's dramas, it is not an immature work. It is less satisfying than the other two because of its story.
The Vikramorvasiya 's theme of the love of the human king and the divine nymph has greater potential for high pathos and even tragedy, and, for the most part, Kalidasa again takes advantage of the subject matter.
The king's love-madness in Act IV is depicted with unsurpassed lyric brilliance. Some critics have been offended that the play carries beyond the "natural tragic climax" to a happy ending; but it is in the poetry that its true grandeur lies. Sakuntala in the Abhijnanasakuntalam is India's most famous heroine.
The prototype is found in the Mahabharata, but the great Sakuntala is the creature of Kalidasa. This drama is justly the most renowned of Kalidasa's, for here poetry and drama become indissolubly one. There is order, delicacy, serenity, cohesion, and balance. It is appropriate that this was the literary work that first introduced India to Europe in modern times. All that Sanskritic culture was, its celebration of the real, and its conception of itself were epitomized in this drama fashioned by the culture's greatest spokesman and poet.
There are many translations of Kalidasa's works. Ryder The famous translation of the Sakuntala by Sir William Jones is a classic. Various arguments concerning the dates of Kalidasa and other biographical points are examined critically in Arthur Berriedale Keith's two works, The Sanskrit Drama in Its Origin, Development, Theory and Practice and A History of Sanskrit Literature , whose critical commentary on the poetry and drama is still of interest. An excellent essay is the chapter on Kalidasa in Surendra N.
Dasgupta and S. De, A History of Sanskrit Literature, vol. A Hindu poet and dramatist. Nothing certain is known about his life and family. It is possible that he lived, between and CE. Kalidasa gale. Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, Learn more about citation styles Citation styles Encyclopedia.
Kalidasa Kalidasa active late 4th-early 5th century was classical India's master poet and dramatist. Further Reading There are many translations of Kalidasa's works. More From encyclopedia. About this article Kalidasa All Sources -. Updated About encyclopedia. Kalich, Bertha — Kalich, Bertha. Kalib, Sholom. Kali Yuga. Kali Bichromium.
Kalfus, Renee Ehrlich. Kalfatovic, Martin R. Kalfa, Isaak ben Joseph. Kaleyard School. Kalesniko, Mark G aston. Kaler, Anne K atherine.
Kalik, Mikhail. Kalikow, Peter S. Kalila and Dimna. Kalimantan Dayaks. Kalimbet, Irina —. Kalinchuk, Yekaterina —. Kaline, Al. Kaline, Al bert William. Kalinina, Ganna —. Kalinina, Irina —. Kalinina, Natalia —. Kalinnikov, Vasili Sergeievich. Kalinnikov, Vasily Sergeyevich.
Mahakavi Kalidas Biography
His plays and poetry are primarily based on the Vedas, the Ramayana , the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Much about his life is unknown, only what can be inferred from his poetry and plays. Scholars have speculated that Kalidasa may have lived near the Himalayas , in the vicinity of Ujjain , and in Kalinga. Lakshmi Dhar Kalla — , a Sanskrit scholar and a Kashmiri Pandit , wrote a book titled The birth-place of Kalidasa , which tries to trace the birthplace of Kalidasa based on his writings. He concluded that Kalidasa was born in Kashmir , but moved southwards, and sought the patronage of local rulers to prosper.
Kalidasa active late 4th-early 5th century was classical India's master poet and dramatist. He demonstrated the expressive and suggestive heights of which the Sanskrit language is capable and revealed the very essence of an entire civilization. Nothing is known with certainty about the life of Kalidasa. Clearly later than the great Buddhist poet Asvaghosha 1st century , Kalidasa was celebrated as a major literary figure in the first half of the 7th century the Aihole inscription, The scholarly consensus outside India is that Kalidasa flourished in the time of Chandragupta II reigned
Mahakavi Kalidas was a famous classical poet in Sanskrit. He was renowned as Mahakavi and made a glorious contribution to the Sanskrit literature. Kalidas Poems brought a unique quality to the literary works. His writings are heart touching and an intellectual treat to the thinkers and the common readers. Mahakavi Kalidas was born before 6th century CE in India. There are some doubts about the exact time of the birth. However, he worked in the court of Emperor Vikramaditya ruler of Ujjain.
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Go to Home Page. There are hundreds of languages in the world. However, great and classical literature which people in all countries need to read is found only in a few languages. One such great language is Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest languages.