Last updated: June 9, Revisions: 8. Whilst most of these injuries can be safely managed on next day emergency lists, there are instances where emergency out-of-hours treatment is required. This is most often through the skin — however, pelvic fractures may be internally open, having penetrated in to the vagina or rectum. Any evidence of contamination should be assessed for and documented — marine, agricultural, and sewage contamination is of the highest importance.
|Published (Last):||16 July 2007|
|PDF File Size:||4.49 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||11.53 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
The Gustilo Anderson classification , also known as the Gustilo classification , is the most widely accepted classification system of open or compound fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher risk of complications.
Soft tissue injury is graded on a combination of:. Grade 3 injuries can be further subdivided by the degree of periosteal and vascular injury and soft tissue loss:.
Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys. Updating… Please wait. Unable to process the form. Check for errors and try again. Thank you for updating your details.
Log In. Sign Up. Log in Sign up. Articles Cases Courses Quiz. About Blog Go ad-free. As of the latest update, Google Chrome and Microsoft Edge have made a breaking change to how file uploads are handled. Once your system installs this update, you will not be able to upload new images.
Please use another browser until we can get it fixed. Management of open fractures and subsequent complications. J Bone Joint Surg Am. Edit article Share article View revision history Report problem with Article. URL of Article. Article information.
Systems: Musculoskeletal , Trauma. Section: Classifications. Synonyms or Alternate Spellings: Gustilo classification. Support Radiopaedia and see fewer ads. Loading more images Close Please Note: You can also scroll through stacks with your mouse wheel or the keyboard arrow keys.
Loading Stack - 0 images remaining. By System:. Patient Cases. Contact Us.
The Gustilo Anderson classification , also known as the Gustilo classification , is the most widely accepted classification system of open or compound fractures. The grading system is used to guide management of compound fractures, with higher grade injuries associated with higher risk of complications. Soft tissue injury is graded on a combination of:. Grade 3 injuries can be further subdivided by the degree of periosteal and vascular injury and soft tissue loss:.
Open fractures usually are high-energy injuries. This, along with the exposure of bone and deep tissue to the environment, leads to increased risk of infection, wound complications, and nonunion [ 12 , 28 , 31 ]. Despite the overall improvement in outcome after open fractures, the variable outcomes among different patterns of open fractures with differing severities prompted the development of grading systems that classify them based on increasing severity of the associated soft tissue injuries. These grading systems seek to help guide treatment, improve communication and research, and predict outcome. Such classifications have been in use for some time [ 29 ]; however, it is the Gustilo-Anderson classification that has become the most commonly used system for classifying open fractures. Early attempts by Veliskakis [ 29 ] at grading open fractures were refined by Gustilo and Anderson in [ 16 ].
Gustilo open fracture classification
The Gustilo open fracture classification system is the most commonly used classification system for open fractures. This system uses the amount of energy, the extent of soft-tissue injury and the extent of contamination for determination of fracture severity. Progression from grade 1 to 3C implies a higher degree of energy involved in the injury, higher soft tissue and bone damage and higher potential for complications. It is important to recognize that a Gustilo score of grade 3C implies vascular injury as well as bone and connective-tissue damage. There are many discussions regarding the inter-observer reliability of this classification system. This is due to much of the criteria being at risk of observer errors, and is a known liability of this scaling system.