Good agricultural practices for milk production: diagnosis and non-compliances adjustment. Binomial distribution of probabilities of positive changes showed significant kind of metric evolution for the treatment group when compared to the control, in addition to significant consistency. Approximated t-Student test for comparison of the means of GAP non-compliances demonstrated significant improvements for the treatment group relative to the control. This novel approach could assist in overcoming existing and emerging GAP challenges to maximize dairy quality. Os resultados mostrados na Tab.
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School feeding is the provision of food on-site or to take home, which aims to increase school enrollment, attendance and retention, and exist as a social safety net for households with very low income.
Home-grown school feeding, additionally, aims to stimulate local economies by providing a source of income for local smallholder farmers.
Literature searches using the Ovid MEDLINE databases gathered information from in-country stakeholders and accessed the program websites of various countries. Nutrient composition of these menus was calculated from nutritional guidelines and menu compositions using a nutrition linear programing tool. School feeding aims differ between countries of each income group.
The implementation, delivery of service, and nutritional content of foods also differ considerably between countries and income groups. In high-income countries, guidelines and standards have been recommended in an attempt to combat rising levels of overweight and obesity, and to model healthier lifestyle habits.
In low-income countries, there is a gap in terms of guidance on nutrition standards and menu composition. Provision of evidence-based guidance on nutrition standards to middle and low income countries, who have recently established or are planning to establish school feeding, has the potential to greatly enhance and improve the quality of service and improve the life of millions of children worldwide.
High-income, and now increasingly middle- and low-income countries, have an additional social problem and challenge. Overweight and obesity levels are increasing and various studies have identified that schoolchildren consume unhealthy foods and lack adequate knowledge in healthy eating habits and lifestyle choices 3 — 6. School feeding is one important method of positively addressing these complex issues in all these countries. School feeding SF is the provision of food on-site or to take home.
Home-grown school feeding is a broad-based definition for SF programs where goods and services for meal preparation are procured from small-holder farmers and businesses. HGSF can be seen as a vehicle to stimulate local economies by providing a market and source of income for local smallholder farmers. In addition, it can also be used as a strategy to ensure that SF menus contain a variety of nutritious food that schoolchildren are accustomed to.
These programs aim to achieve a variety of positive outcomes. The aims of school feeding differ according to country. This review focuses on school feeding in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. For each country, we have mentioned the main aims and objectives of the country-specific school feeding program SFP , its framework, service delivery, nutritional guidelines or the lack of it , and the nutritional composition of menus.
In high-income countries, SFPs aim to tackle the rising levels of childhood overweight and obesity. In middle- and low-income countries, SFPs have two different branches of aims. In the short-term, it aims to alleviate hunger, exist as a social safety net for households with very low income, and increase enrollment of children into schools 7. In the longer term, it aims to improve the nutritional status, attendance, cognitive development, and retention of school children 7.
There are two main modalities of school feeding: in-school feeding and take-home rations 9. These are usually complemented with other interventions such as micronutrient supplementation, fortified biscuits, and deworming programs. There is evidence that school feeding increases enrollment, attendance, retention, and educational achievement and alleviates short term hunger 10 — However, further research must be conducted in order to determine how much of a significant longer-term benefit school feeding has over other social safety nets.
These positive aspects of school feeding are coupled with the negative aspects or trade-offs. There is plenty of evidence that show school feeding increases enrollment, attendance, and retention; however, this is not the case with the improvement of overall nutritional status of schoolchildren These families view the SFP as an income transfer and tend to spend the food budget of these schoolchildren on other household purchases.
For a SFP to be successful, it must be ensured that this substitution effect does not take place. Studies conducted in Ghana, Kenya, Mali, and Rwanda have concluded that there is a need for guidelines on nutrition and menu designs to be recommended in countries that have established HGSF programs Currently, there are no nutritional guidelines in these countries and very little guidance on menu design. This review analyses the nutritional guidelines and menu compositions of various countries in order to gauge the amount of nutrients that are being delivered through SFPs via on-site feeding, with a view to highlight where there is a need to establish and implement guidelines to improve the quality of life of schoolchildren.
In England, France, USA, Italy, Finland, and Brazil, we focused mainly on the current nutritional guidelines and how national programs of school meal provision are implemented. In Ghana, India, Kenya, Mali, and Rwanda, we examined if a standard existed for SF programs, the nutritional content of menus, and how much local produce is incorporated into these menus. Relevant literature was searched using a variety of methods, including searches using the Ovid MEDLINE databases from to present , interviews with program stakeholders in Nigeria, Kenya, and Ghana, and through school food program websites of various countries.
We focused on on-site feeding and lunch time meals only. We used reviews to obtain nutritional guidelines, and studies and state school feeding documents to obtain menu compositions.
Nutritional guidelines were obtained for England, France, USA, and Brazil and the percentage composition of nutrients was calculated using these guidelines. For Ghana, we were not able to find guidelines or the daily ration amount for the menu composition, so values were estimated in comparison with other countries in the region.
Nutritional guidelines or menu compositions for Italy and Finland were not available. For countries without references to the cost per meal, the cost per daily meal per child was calculated using average costs of SFPs of these countries. Data were collected and compared for 12 countries classified into their respective income groups as per World Bank classifications There may be differences in the equivalence for different countries. RNI are usually captured for both macronutrients and micronutrients.
Macronutrients basically carbohydrates, protein, and fat provide the energy kilocalories needed by the body to maintain essential body functions, growth, and physical activities. The recommended level of dietary energy intake for a population group, which is the mean energy requirement of healthy, well-nourished individuals who constitute that group, may differ slightly depending on the situation. Children and adolescents in rural, traditional communities of developing countries, for example, are more active than their counterparts living in urban areas, or children from developed, industrialized countries, and hence, may have a slightly different requirement.
There are important differences in energy and nutrient requirements between boys and girls. Because these differences are minor, there is no need to allocate different rations in mixed schools. It is recommended to use the same commodities but different ration sizes for the different age groups whenever the school feeding program targets pre-primary, primary, or lower secondary schools.
In all instances, an even distribution by age and sex within each age group is assumed Estimates of daily macronutrient requirements for children and adolescents. Micronutrients comprise vitamins and minerals that help to regulate growth, activity, and development, functioning of the immune and reproductive systems, and are needed by the body in minute amounts.
Recommended intakes for iron are disaggregated by sex for the subgroups: 11—14 and 15— Recommended iron intakes are much higher for menstruating adolescents for example, in the case low iron bioavailability, the recommended intake is In the case of adolescent girls, the figures retained in the table below are those of non-menstruating adolescents based on a review of various studies, which report average age at menarche menstruation to range from This figure needs to be verified as there is an indication that age at menarche is progressively decreasing in high-income countries.
For iron, the proposed estimate is based on very low iron bioavailability i. The figure in brackets refers to situations of low iron bioavailability i. Geneva, World Health Organization Various funding mechanisms are in place to aid the SFT Nutrient-based food standards came into effect on September Catering is provided either by the local authority or schools organized their own catering service via private catering services or through an in-house service Local authorities LAs either offer an in-house catering service or use a centrally procured private contractor.
A canteen style service is in place in almost all schools with some pupils bringing packed lunches from home.
There has been much emphasis on making the dining environment more appealing This table compares the aims and objectives, policy and implementation, and delivery of service between high-income countries. France aims to ensure that schoolchildren receive essential and high-quality nutrients. Local councils are in charge of providing the meals and they are increasingly contracting the meals to private caterers The majority of French schools operate a canteen-style service.
School meals are mostly three or four courses. Vending machines were banned in schools in September The Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Program operate in four states and three tribal organizations School districts use the lowest cost bid approach in order to reduce costs. Reducing costs are deemed as necessary due to stringent federal reimbursement processes.
This has led to many questions being raised about the quality of food served Majority of the meals are served canteen style. In Italy , there is great emphasis on organic food and sustainability. The Finance Law ensures that regional and organic sourced foods are promoted, along with Italian farming practices and the Italian food culture.
The Government invests on ingredients and the school meal service GM foods are not permitted. The majority of schoolchildren use a school lunch. The dining experience is considered very important in Italy and much emphasis is placed on Italian food culture and healthy eating.
Young schoolchildren aged 2—14 sit at round tables covered by table cloths and silverware and they are served a three-course meal, with teachers often joining them Meals are provided free for the poorest families, with discounts for low-income families We could not find any nutritional guidelines for Italy. In Finland , since , all students in schools and sixth form colleges are entitled to a free meal Meals are provided either by the municipality council or a private catering company The children serve and return the food trays themselves and this reduces labor costs The dining environment is well-furnished and there is great emphasis on the learning of table manners and Finnish customs Packed lunches are not allowed.
It is required that a meal must contain a main course, salad, drink, bread, and margarine We could not find any nutritional guidelines for Finland.
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