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The article presents an outline of the progress in landscape science in Poland. Former works by Polish scientists mostly dealt with the development of natural or socio-economic conditioning of landscape and its division, typology and regionalisation, whereas, in the most recent Polish literature, more and more attention is devoted to landscape ecology, i.
The article describes the phases of landscape development in Poland and the landscape types, which occur there. The interdisciplinary nature of the contemporary landscape research is pointed out and the main research schools are presented. The paper may serve as an element of a broader work on the progress of landscape science in Europe. Pol, A. Rehman, E. Romer and S. After years, the above conceptions, which formed a basis for regional research and syntheses, only survived in school geography, where landscape description was used to teach regional geography.
At the beginning, the research mainly consisted in documenting and analysing heritage landscape systems; then, the problems of the conservation and renewal of the systems came within the scope of the study. At the same time, the Warsaw academic centre, connected with an agricultural academy, focused on urban green areas and the green surrounding representative objects. It was then that the scope of the subject was broadened, the system of education changed, and a considerable increase in the number of institutions involved in landscape research and applying the findings of the science took place.
The Warsaw centre, linked to the Department of Gardening and Landscape Architecture and Institute of the Landscape Architecture of Cracow Politechnic has long been educating architects specialising in landscape architecture. At the end of the s, a separate programme of their education was created in Cracow and landscape architecture became an independent faculty. Periodically held Didactic Forums in Landscape Architecture help co-ordinate and integrate the efforts aimed at educating landscape architects.
Computer data processing, graphic techniques and computer cartography mainly GIS have become commonly used in research and the presentation of findings. Many publications are concerned with the issue of landscape transformations in particular, and provide a comprehensive discussion of all aspects of qualitative features of landscape, often documenting the recent and contemporary processes.
Considerable financial resources were allocated to the implementation of the assessments. Some of the statements, prepared by distinguished landscape researchers and concerned with the delimitation of protected landscape areas, the evaluation and typology of protected landscapes and the directions of t heir conservation, reveal an in ovatory methodological approach and high substantial value Chmielewski, ; Michalczyk ed. Nowadays, over landscape parks and over protected landscape areas function in Poland, besides its 23 national parks.
In , the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Education signed an agreement providing for collective efforts towards landscape conservation and education.
When distinguishing landscape types, natural elements were considered the most important and their anthropogenic transformations were taken into account. In these terms, man is not regarded as an element of the natural system.
The first such typology of natural landscapes was compiled at the end of the s Kondracki, A new version was prepared in the s. The typology was published in a slightly modified and simplified form by Richling in Table1 presents an outline of the typological classification of natural landscape in Poland according to Richling 2. It concerns the estimate of view amenities. This estimation is expressed in di stinguishing natural landscape — or similar — areas first amenities category and harmonic agricultural landscape second amenities category.
These areas refer to the boundaries of natural landscape basic types seaside landscape zone, lakeland, lowland, upland and mountain Fig. Table 1.
Types of natural landscape in Poland according to Richling Source: Compiled by E. Skowronek on the basis of Bogdanowski J. All phenomena associated with a given civilisation, with social and economic relations etc. While former works on the subject mainly dealt with the development of the natural or socio-economic conditioning of landscape and its division classification , typologies and regionalization, the present-day literature is more and more concerned with landscape ecology, which is landscape conservation and planning.
Scientists who show great interest in the issues include: A. Richling, A. Kostrowicki, J. Solon, J. Plit, J. Falkowski, J. Bogdanowski, M. Pietrzak, K. Wojciechowski, J. Geografia, p. Metody delimitacji i zasady zagospodarowania przestrzennego Landscape parks in Poland. Methods of delimitation and spatial management rules , p. X, p.
Aspekty ekologiczne i gospodarcze Renaturalisation of natural objects. Ecological and economic aspects , p. PLIT J. Richling and refers to a physiogeographic division and terminology commonly used in Poland. Contents - Previous document - Next document. Wojciechowski , Ewa Skowronek and Andrzej Tucki. Keywords: geography , landscape science , landscape ecology , Poland.
Outline The history of landscape science in Poland. Full text PDF Send by e-mail. The history of landscape science in Poland 1 The conception of landscape as a subject of study and a category useful in imparting geographic and regional knowledge appeared at the turn of the 19th century, in the works of several most distinguished geographers of the time W.
Zoom Original jpeg, k. Figure 1. The map of the types of the Polish natural landscape. Zoom Original jpeg, 1. Table 2. Stages of landscape development. Top of page.
List of illustrations Title Table 1. Credits Source: Compiled by E. References Bibliographical reference K. Electronic reference K. About the authors K. Browse Index Authors Keywords. Follow us RSS feed. Newsletters OpenEdition Newsletter. In collaboration with.
Foundations of Poland#x2019;s Cultural Landscape Protection — Conservation Policy