ASTM A is the standard specification for carbon and alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high-pressure transmission service which are manufactured for use with high-strength transmission-service pipe. All grades shall be furnished suitable for field welding and be free of welding-repair. No limits apply to above-mentioned elements of A forgings furnished in carbon or low alloy steel. The steel shall be made by either open hearth, electric furnace, or basic oxygen process and it shall be fully deoxidized.
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ASTM A refers to the material of carbon and alloy steel pipe flanges, fittings, valves and parts for high pressure liquid transmissions. ASTM A have several grades from F42 to F70, and each grade is specified based on the minimum yield strength as below table 1. The standard available in two units, foot-pound units and International Metric SI units. However, the material shall be supplied in feet-pound units unless the ''metric'' code SI unit is specified in the order.
In addition to the reference standards listed in Specification A, the following standards also apply to this specification. Materials provided in accordance with this specification shall comply with the requirements of Specification A and the additional requirements specified in the purchase order. And if this specification is inconsistent with the specification A , this specification shall be primary followed.
The steel material under A shall adopt one of the following smelting processes: open furnace, electric furnace or oxygen top-blown converter. Moreover, steel should be completely deoxidized. As agreed by the buyer and manufacturer, the material shall be carbon steel, high strength low alloy steel or alloy steel. Further more, manufacturer shall report the chemical composition of the used material.
Forging materials include ingots or billets, billets, slabs or forged, rolled rods, and cut to the specified length according to the appropriate process. All forgings should be heat treated.
The heat treatment of carbon steel and high-strength low-alloy steel should be normalized, normalized or tempered or quenched and tempered.
The heat treatment of alloy steel is aging treatment with quenching and precipitation or aging treatment with quenching and precipitation. The smelting analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of Specification A, and the results of the analysis shall comply with the chemical composition requirements given in Table 2. Note: All elements listed in Table 2 shall be reported. Where no composition limit is listed, values are to be reported but no limits apply except as covered in 6.
The mechanical properties are tested in accordance with the requirements of Specification A The tensile mechanical properties of the materials are to comply with the requirements of Table 1. Table 1. Reference Standard In addition to the reference standards listed in Specification A, the following standards also apply to this specification. Manufacturing process Melting Process The steel material under A shall adopt one of the following smelting processes: open furnace, electric furnace or oxygen top-blown converter.
Manufacturing Practice: Forging materials include ingots or billets, billets, slabs or forged, rolled rods, and cut to the specified length according to the appropriate process. Hot working shall be sufficient to develop a wrought structure throughout the part.
Flanges shall not be machined directly from plate nor from solid bar stock. Heat treatment All forgings should be heat treated. Chemical composition The smelting analysis shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of Specification A, and the results of the analysis shall comply with the chemical composition requirements given in Table 2. Chemical Requirements. Tensile Strength The mechanical properties are tested in accordance with the requirements of Specification A Process quality, precision and appearance Forgings shall be free of the detrimental defects described in Specification A All forgings to be repaired by welding shall be repair welded prior to heat treatment.
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ASTM A694 Carbon and Alloy Steel Forgings
Historical Version s - view previous versions of standard. More A This specification covers carbon and alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges, fittings, valves, and parts for high-pressure transmission service. A chemical heat analysis of the steel shall be made, and the steel shall conform to specified chemical composition requirements. Materials adhere to testing and tensile property requirements as well.
High Yield Flanges (ASTM A694)
The chemical composition and the mechanical properties of the three main carbon steel flanges material grades :. Alloy flange materials chrome-moly have higher chrome and molybdenum content than carbon steel flanges. The key elements that differentiate stainless steel materials for flanges, compared to other grades, are the Nickel Ni , Chrome Cr , and Molybdenum content Mo. Duplex steel ASTM A is an extremely corrosion resistant, work hardenable stainless steel, whose microstructure consists of a mixture of austenite and ferrite phases.